Theodore V. Hromadka, II, Ph.D., Ph.D., Ph.D., D. WRE, PE, L.G., P.H.
Chartered Hydrometeorologist and Fellow Royal Meteorological Society, FRMets
Diplomate, American Academy of Water Resources Engineers
Board Certified Environmental Scientist, American Academy of Environmental Engineers and Scientists, (AAEES), Certified Groundwater Professional, National Groundwater Association, Certified Professional Hydrologist (surface water; groundwater / hydrogeology), Certified Professional Hydrogeologist
Licensed Civil Engineer, Licensed Geoscientist, Licensed Geologist, Chartered Meteorologist, RMetS
Dr. Theodore V. Hromadka’s Virtual Wall
Degrees, Honors, Awards, Accolades, Licenses
Specialized Professional Competence
Hydrologic and hydraulic analysis and modeling, flooding evaluations, groundwater assessment, water quality evaluation, and sediment and contaminant transport. Rainfall and Atmospheric Science. Water Quality. Best Management Practices Systems. Sediment transport. Groundwater modeling, supply, and contaminant transport. Interaction of soil water and soil strength. Floodplain inundation, debris flows, and mudfloods analysis studies. Flood protection systems including levees, channels, pipes, pumps, and other elements. Saturated and unsaturated soil-water flow. Statistics and Probability. Computer Software.
Ph.D. (Methods in Computational Engineering Mathematics) (Methods in Advanced Transport Modeling Analysis), University of Wales, England, 2001
Ph.D. (Applied Mathematics and Systems Modeling), University of California at Irvine, 1985
Ph.D. (Water Resources/Civil Engineering), University of California at Irvine, 1980
M.S. (Water Resources/Civil Engineering), University of California at Irvine, 1977
M.A. (Applied Mathematics), California State University, Fullerton, 1976
B.A. (Applied Mathematics), California State University, Fullerton, 1972
Board Certified Environmental Scientist, American Academy of Environmental Engineers & Scientists (AAEES), March 23, 2016.
State Certified Qualified SWPPP Developer (QSD), California Water Quality Control Board, July 1, 2012
Certification of Engineering Record, National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying, No. 28052
Certified Professional Hydrologist – Surface Water, No. 716, American Institute of Hydrology.
Certified Professional Hydrologist – Groundwater/Hydrogeology, No. 716, American Institute of Hydrology.
Certified Professional Hydrogeologist, No. 716, American Institute of Hydrology.
Professional Civil Engineer – California, No. 29281; Nevada, No. 8294; Hawaii, No. 11409; Arizona, No. 41853; Iowa, No. 17915; New York, No. 084356; Illinois (2007), No. 062060219
Licensed Geoscientist (geology, geophysics, soil science, hydrogeology, engineering geology, environmental geology) – Texas, No. 485;
Licensed Geologist- Arkansas, No. 1950
Certified Groundwater Professional, No. 3157057, NGWA, The Association of Groundwater Scientists and Engineers
Fellow Royal Meteorological Society (FRMetS)
Chartered Meteorologist, RMetS
Awards and Honors
United States Military Academy, West Point, Dean of the Academic Board, “Award for Excellence” (April 22, 2016)
Chair, Mathematical Sciences Center, United States Military Academy, West point, New York (2016)
Civil Engineering Advisory Board Member, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, (January 9, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016)
Founding Diplomate, Water Resources Engineer (D. WRE), American Academy of Water Resources Engineers (AAWRE), April 1, 2006.
California State University, Fullerton, “Outstanding Scholarly and Creative Activity” award; Scholarship Award resulting in Highest Quality, Seminal Books and Monographs, (2000 to 2003); awarded 2004.
Wessex Institute of Technology: Recognition of Leadership in Computational Engineering. Awarded “Fellow of Wessex Institute of Great Britain” (May 19, 2003)
California State University, Fullerton, Faculty Author Award (2003)
California State University, Fullerton, Outstanding Faculty Recognition Award for Highest Quality Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles (1998-2000); awarded 2001
California State University, Fullerton, Outstanding Faculty Recognition Award for Highest Quality Seminal Books (1998-2000); awarded 2001
California State University, Fullerton, Outstanding Faculty Recognition Award for Highest Quality External Grants (1998-2000); awarded 2001
California State University, Fullerton, Outstanding Recognition Award, Scholarly and Creative Activity (1998-2000); awarded 2001
California State University, Fullerton, FMI Merit Award (2000)
California State University, Fullerton, FMI Merit Award (1999)
California State University, Fullerton, Outstanding Recognition Award, Scholarly and Creative Activity (1998)
California State University Outstanding Performance Award (1998)
California State University Outstanding Performance Award (1997)
ASCE Recognition Award (1996)
ASCE Award for Outstanding Presentation (1995)
Orange County Engineering Council: Outstanding Engineering Merit Award (1993)
Fellow, Institute for the Advancement of Engineering, Los Angeles, California (1993)
CCCE&LS Award of Excellence: New Technology (1992)
CCCE&LS Grand Award of Excellence: Planning (1991)
CCCE&LS Grand Award of Excellence: New Technology (1991)
California State University Meritorious Performance and Promise Award (1991)
California State University Meritorious Performance and Promise Award (1990)
Early Tenure and Early Promotion to Full Professor, California State University, Fullerton, (Spring 1990)
ASCE Recognition Award (1987)
Hromadka & Associates, Rancho Santa Margarita, California, Jan 2002 – Present
Integral Consultants, Costa Mesa, California, Apr 2001 – December 2001
Principal Engineer, Practice Director and Group Founder: Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences
Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Costa Mesa, California, Sept 2000 – Apr 2001
Principal Engineer, Development Group
Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Costa Mesa, California, Jan 2000 – Sept 2000
Principal Engineer, Practice Director and Group Founder: Hydrology Group; Office Director
Exponent Failure Analysis Associates, Inc., Costa Mesa, California, May 1996 – Jan 2000
Technical Director/Principal Engineer
Boyle Engineering Corporation, Newport Beach, California, April 1992 – May 1996
Vice President, and Director of Water Resources Engineering,
Williamson and Schmid Civil Engineers, Inc., Irvine, California, March 1979 – April 1992
Berryman and Stephenson, Inc., Santa Ana, California, March 1977 – March 1979
City of Santa Ana Department of Public Works: Right-of-Way and Civil Engineering, March 1976-March 1977; Design Civil Engineering, 1975; Traffic and Civil Engineering, 1973
Engineering Assistant: Mechanical engineering and metal extrusion inspection; Rollment Inc. Irvine, California, 1972-1973
Research and Academic Appointments
Chair, Mathematical Sciences Center, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York (2016)
Professor, Mathematical Sciences, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York (2005-present)
Professor of Mathematics, Department of Mathematical Sciences, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (2005-present)
Research Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, California State University, Fullerton Research of Hydrologic and hydraulic information and analysis. Instruction of Weather, CFD, and H&H course material. (2012 to 2014; reappointed 2014 to 2017
Member, Civil Engineering Advisory Board, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York (January 9, 2009-2016)
Program Director: Computational Hydrology and Geosciences, Wessex Institute of Technology (2003-present)
Advisory Board, Wessex Institute of Technology, Southampton, England (2003-present)
Vice President, EnviroCOMP Institute (1996-present)
Adjunct Professor, Department of Mathematical Sciences, United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (2004-2005)
Professor, Emeritus, Departments of Mathematics, Geological Sciences, Environmental Studies, California State University, Fullerton, (2004-present)
Professor, Mathematics, California State University, Fullerton (1986-2004)
Adjunct Professor, Geological Sciences, California State University, Fullerton (2001-2004)
Member, Environmental Council, California State University, Fullerton (1995-2004)
Professor, Environmental Sciences, California State University, Fullerton (1992-2004)
Affiliate, CESIR (Center for Earth Science Information Research), Stanford University (1996-2001)
Director, Computational Hydrology Institute (1985-1995)
Founder and Director, Computational Hydrology Institute, (“CHI”), Irvine, California, (1979-1992)
Research Associate, Princeton University (1983-1985)
Research Hydrologist, (GS13, Step 10) USGS Water Resources Division (1981-1983)
Lecturer, University of California, Irvine, Dept. of Civil Engineering (1980-1981)
Research Associate, University of California, Irvine (1977-1981)
Series Editor: Hromadka II, T.V., and Rao, P., Hydrology & Hydraulics, INTECH Publications, 2017-Present
Founder and Coordinator: Journal of Applications in Computational Engineering Mathematics, (2006-present)
Journal Coordinator, Applications in Computational Engineering Mathematics, Selected CEM Research Topics, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York (2015 – present)
Guest Editor: Engineering Analysis with Boundary Elements (EABE), Volume 30, 2006.
Editor-in-Chief: “Hydrological Science and Technology”, American Institute of Hydrology (2004-2009)
Founder, and Editor-in-Chief: “Journal of Floodplain Management”, Floodplain Management Association (1998-2005)
Member: Editorial Board, Advances in Engineering Software (1991-1997)
Editorial Board: EnviroNEWS (1991-2000)
Technical Editor: Lighthouse Publications (1985-2008)
Associate Editor: Environmental Software (1988-1996)
Editor: MicroSoftware for Engineers (1988-1992)
Book Review Editor: Hydrologic Science and Technology (1989-1995)
“Extreme Evidence”, Court TV, Carlton Productions, filmed January 21, 2004
Publications – More than 500 Refereed Publications including Refereed Conference Papers and Refereed Journal Papers, over 30 Books (see Publication List for Papers):
1. Hromadka II, T.V., 1983, Computer Methods in Urban Hydrology, Rational Methods and Unit Hydrograph Methods, Lighthouse Publications.
2. Hromadka II, T.V., 1984, The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method, Springer-Verlag Publishers.
3. Hromadka II, T.V., Clements, J. and Saluja, H., 1984, Computer Methods in Urban Watershed Hydraulics, Lighthouse Publications.
4. Hromadka II, T.V., Durbin, T.J. and DeVries, J.J., 1985, Computer Methods in Water Resources, Lighthouse Publications.
5. Hromadka II, T.V. and Lai, Chintu, 1987, The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method in Engineering Analysis, Springer-Verlag Publishers.
6. Hromadka II, T.V., Beech, B.L., and Clements, J.M., 1986, Computational Hydraulics for Civil Engineers, Lighthouse Publications (USA) co-published by Computational Mechanics Press (England).
7. Hromadka II, T.V. and Yen, C.C., 1986, Complex Variable Boundary Elements, Computational Mechanics Press.
8. Hromadka II, T.V., McCuen, R.H., and Yen, C.C., 1987, Computational Hydrology in Flood Control Design and Planning, Lighthouse Publications.
9. Hromadka II, T.V., Yen, C.C., and Pinder, G.F., 1987, The Best Approximation Method – An Introduction, Springer-Verlag Publishers, Lecture Notes Series, Number 27.
10. Hromadka II, T.V., and McCuen, R.H., 1987, Editors, Conference Proceedings, First International Computational Hydrology Conference, Anaheim, California, Lighthouse Publications.
11. Hromadka II, T.V., 1988, Computational Hydraulics of Irregular Channels, Lighthouse Publications, co-published by CMP, England. 270 pgs.
12.Hromadka II, T.V., and Whitley, R.J., 1989, Stochastic Integral Equations in Rainfall-Runoff Modeling, Springer-Verlag.
13. Hromadka II, T.V., and Lai, Chintu, 1990, Complex Variable Boundary Element Method, Russian Translation, Springer-Verlag.
14. Hromadka II, T.V., 1993, The Best Approximation Method in Computational Mechanics, Springer-Verlag, 250 pages.
15. Hromadka II, T.V., McCuen, R. H., Durbin, T.J., DeVries, J.J., 1994, Computer Methods in Environmental and Water Resources Engineering, Lighthouse Publications, 450 pages.
16. Hromadka II, T.V., 1996, Hydrologic Methods in the Arid Southwest United States, Lighthouse Publications, 200 pages.
17. McCuen, R.H., and Hromadka II, T.V., 1996, Estimating Debris Volumes for Flood Control, Lighthouse Publications, 150 pages.
18. Hromadka II, T.V., and Whitley, R.J., 1998, Advances in the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method, Springer-Verlag, 390 pages.
19. Hromadka II, T.V., Harryman, R., Hromadka, III, T.V., 2000, Stormwater Information Management Systems (SIMS), Lighthouse Publications, 400 pages.
20. Hromadka II, T.V., 2002, A Multi-Dimensional Complex Variable Boundary Element Method, WIT Press, Southampton, England, 250 pages.
(21.) Hromadka II, T.V., and Costa, G., Engineering Mathematics, (in-preparation).
22. Hromadka II, T.V. and Lai, Chintu, First Printing 1987, The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method in Engineering Analysis, Springer-Verlag Publishers, Republished Digitally in 2012.
23. Hromadka II, T.V., Yen, C.C., and Pinder, G.F., First Printing 1987, The Best Approximation Method – An Introduction, Springer-Verlag Publishers, Lecture Notes Series, Number 27, Republished Digitally in 2012.
24. Hromadka II, T.V., and Whitley, R.J., First Printing 1989, Stochastic Integral Equations in Rainfall-Runoff Modeling, Springer-Verlag, Republished Digitally in 2013.
25. Hromadka II, T.V., and Whitley, R.J., First Printing 1998, Advances in the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method, Springer-Verlag, 390 pages, Republished Digitally in 2013.
26. Hromadka II, T.V. and Whitley, R.J., Foundations of the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method, 2014, Springer Verlag.
27. Hromadka II, T.V., Rao, P., Editors, Topics in Climate Modeling, INTECH, 164 pages, 2016.
28. Hromadka II, T.V., Rao, P., Editors, Flood Risk Management, INTECH, 316 pages, 2017.
29. Hromadka II, T.V., Rao, P., 2018, Engineering and Mathematics of Rainfall, INTECH, 260 pages.
30. Hromadka II, T.V., Rao, P., 2018, Hydrometeorology, InTECH, 350 pages, (In-Preparation)
Key Published Governmental Reports
1. Guymon, G.L. and Hromadka II, T.V., 1980, Finite Element Model of Heat Conduction with Isothermal Phase Change (Two- and Three- Dimensional), CRREL Special Report SR 77-38.
2. Guymon, G.L., Berg, R.L., Johnson, T. and Hromadka II, T.V., 1981, Results from a Mathematical Model of Frost Heave, Transportation Research Board Record, #809, pp. 2-6.
3. Hromadka II, T.V. and Guymon, G.L., 1983, San Bernardino County Hydrology Manual, County of San Bernardino, State of California.
4. Guymon, G.L., and Hromadka II, T.V., Feb. 1993, Mathematical Model of Frost Heave and Thaw Settlement in Pavements, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, (CRREL) Special Report,#93-2.
5. Hromadka II, T.V., 1986, Complex Variable Boundary Elements in Engineering, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, (CRREL) Special Report.
6. Hromadka II, T.V., 1986, A Nodal Domain Integration Model of Two-Dimensional Heat and Soil-Water Flow Coupled by Soil-Water Phase Change, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, (CRREL) Special Report, #87-9.
7. Hromadka II, T.V., 1986, Tracking Two-Dimensional Freezing Front Movement Using the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, (CRREL) Special Report, #87-8.
8. Hromadka II, T.V., 1985, Calibration of the Proposed Orange County EMA Unit Hydrograph Procedure (A Study of Basin Factors and Coastal S-Graphs), published by the Orange County Environmental Management Agency (OCEMA), Santa Ana, California, 204 pages.
9. Hromadka II, T.V., 1986, The Orange County Hydrology Manual, OCEMA, Orange County, California.
10. Hromadka II, T.V., 1986, The San Bernardino County Hydrology Manual, San Bernardino County, California.
11. Hromadka II, T.V. and Yen, C.C., 1987, A Diffusion Hydrodynamic Model (DHM), United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.) Water Resources Division Special Report 87-4137.
12. Hromadka II, T.V., 1987, The Orange County Hydrology Workbook, OCEMA, Orange County, California.
13. Hromadka II, T.V., 1988, Sedimentation Manual, San Bernardino County Flood Control District.
14. Hromadka II, T.V., Bajak, T., 1990, Hydrology Manual for the City of Encinitas, California.
15. Hromadka II, T.V., Bajak, T., 1992, Hydrology Manual for the County of Kern, California.
16. Hromadka II, T.V., 1995, Hydrology Manual for the City of Coalinga, California.
17. Hromadka II, T.V., 1995, Hydrology Manual for Imperial Irrigation District, Imperial County, California.
18. Hromadka II, T.V., 1998, Hydrology Manual for the County of San Joaquin, California.
19. Hromadka II, T.V., and McCuen, R.H., 1998, Debris Production Manual, County of San Bernardino, California.
20. U.S. Corps of Engineers, Los Angeles District Office, Derivation of a Rainfall-Runoff Model to Compute N-year Floods for Orange County Watersheds, November 1987.
21. Hromadka II, T.V., 2003, Contributor, Hydrology Manual for County of San Diego, County of San Diego, California.
22. Hromadka II, T.V., and Laton, W.R., 2005, Implementation of Hydrologic Conditions of Concern Requirements, HCOC Manual, County of San Bernardino, California.
23. Hromadka II, T.V., Laton, W.R., Picciuto, J.A., 2005, Estimating Runoff Quantities for Flow and Volume-based BMP Design, San Bernardino County Flood Control District, Stormwater Quality Program.
24. Hromadka II, T.V., Perez, R., and Laton, W.R., Hydrologic Report, Winter Storms of October 2004, 2006, County of Orange, California, Hydrology Division.
25. Hromadka II, T.V., a Report on the Calibration Analysis for the San Diego County Hydrology Manual, County of Orange, California, Hydrology Division, (2007).
26. Hromadka II, T.V., San Juan Creek Watershed Study – Calibration for Natural Areas, County of Orange, California, Hydrology Division, (2007).
27. Hromadka II, T.V., Winter Storms of January 2005 Hydrologic Report, County of Orange, California, Hydrology Division, (2007).
28. Hromadka II, T.V., Evaluation of the Need to Update and/or Recalibrate the Orange County Hydrology Manual, County of Orange, California, Hydrology Division, (2007).
29. Hromadka II, T.V., 2007, A Report on the Calibration Analysis for the San Diego County Hydrology Manual. (County of San Diego)
30.Hromadka II, T.V., 2018, Investigations of Arid Hydrology Data and Methods for Southwest United States, San Bernardino County Flood Control District.
31. Hromadka II, T.V., et al., 2018, Doppler RADAR and Precipitation Depth Correlation for the Arid Region of San Bernardino County.
Dr. Hromadka has contributed to various aspects of water resources, flood control, groundwater analysis, transport mechanics, engineering and planning with over 45 years of relevant experience. He has been an invited speaker in Russia, Japan, England, Austria, and Germany. Expertise includes the development of master plans for surface water hydrology and watershed flood control, the preparation of county hydrologic procedures and hydrology manuals, development of computer systems for hydraulic analyses and hydraulic design, and development of plans for water quality enhancement, Best Management Practices, water quality monitoring, groundwater and atmospheric transport analysis, sediment transport, debris production, and Runoff Management. Groundwater work includes development of techniques for the numerical solution of partial differential equations, including the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method (CVBEM) and the Nodal Domain Integration (NDI) method; development of models for simulation of coupled saturated-unsaturated flow; and development of models for mass and heat transport in groundwater, including soil-water flow in freezing and thawing soils, the transport of contaminants in groundwater, sediment, and runoff, and transport phenomena in fluids including atmospheric, surface, and subsurface. A recent contribution in the extension of the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method (CVBEM) to three dimensions, breaking a barrier that has existed since the 1800s. Application of this technology can be made in a variety of transport phenomena, including groundwater flow, sediment transport, rainfall distributions, among other topics.
Dr. Hromadka has been involved with water resources and transport phenomena related projects since 1973. During this time, more than 1500 project reports and technical studies have been completed under his direction.
Project history includes preparation of 58 coastal, mountain, and desert city or county-wide master plans of drainage and environmental systems, including preparation of hydrologic criteria, computer modeling, debris/sedimentation issues, financial assessment, and priority issues. Prepared city master plans of drainage (MPD) for Beverly Hills, Costa Mesa, Montclair, Los Angeles (450 square miles), Corona, Apple Valley (CCCE&LS Grand Award of Excellence, 1991), Desert Knolls, Encinitas, Hesperia, Huntington Beach, Santa Ana, Rancho Cucamonga, Upland, Victorville, Yucaipa, Coalinga, Torrance, and more. He is the principal author of the Hydrology Manuals for the counties of San Bernardino (1983, 1986), Orange (1987), Kern (1992), San Joaquin (1996), and Imperial (1996); and the principal author of a Debris Production Manual for San Bernardino County (1996). Prepared calibration of County Flood Control agency criteria for hydrologic, sedimentation and debris/mud flow models, including the County of San Diego Hydrology Manual (2006). Prepared floodplain studies for numerous large scale alluvial and river systems including dams and debris dams. Principal author of the Computational Fluid Dynamics “CFD” computer program for United States Geological Survey (U.S.G.S.), Diffusion Hydrodynamic Model (DHM) for two-dimensional topographic hydraulic analysis (CCCE&LS Grand Award of Excellence, 1991, “New Technology”), the principal author of the Surface Water Environmental Impact assessment criteria used in the counties of Orange, San Bernardino, and Kern, the principal author of the surface water MPD software of Advanced Engineering Software (AES) (including graphics GIS interface, used by dozens of cities and agencies in southern California), the principal author of DHM-34 for the Orange County Environmental Management Agency for use in catchment deficiency studies such as the C05/C06 system, and the principal author of the US Army Corps of Engineers “LAPRE1” preprocessor for HEC-1.
Dr. Hromadka has contributed both applied and research experience in computer modeling of groundwater hydraulics, contaminant transport, and transport phenomena in fluids. Research contributions to the practical solution of problems in groundwater hydraulics and solute transport, and atmospheric transport processes, are the development of the nodal domain integration, boundary integral, and complex variable boundary element numerical methods for solving the equations of groundwater flow and solute transport. Additionally, he has developed algorithms for the two- and three-dimensional simulation of contaminant transport of miscible and immiscible materials.
Project history includes preparation of two-and three-dimensional finite element computer models of groundwater flow for regions in Ontario and Owens Valley, California and cold regions groundwater flow models for permafrost issues regarding rivers and levees in Alaska. Evaluated contaminant transport issues due to storm water retention near Milliken Landfill, Ontario, California, and prepared a Groundwater Resources Evaluation study for the 100-square-mile desert region of Apple Valley, California. Authored the computer code for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) one-, two-, and three-dimensional groundwater flow finite element model of coupled saturated and unsaturated soil water flow in anisotropic, nonhomogeneous soil, including the effects of heat transport and soil water phase change. Authored the Complex Variable Boundary Element Method computer program, while at the USGS, resulting in publication by the US Army Corps of Engineers.
Completed a water quality objectives development study for the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, Los Angeles Region, for both the entire Los Angeles and Ventura counties. More than 950 station sites were evaluated for surface and subsurface water quality statistical analysis, including temperature, PH, DO, TDS, Sulfate, Chlorides, Boron, NO3-N, NO2-N, NO3, P, among other constituents. Water quality objectives were evaluated, as well as excursion analysis. The study reporting included GIS mapping, statistical box and whisker plots, trend analysis plots, water quality constituent mapping and database development. Prepared the computer software for the City of Los Angeles storm water quality and quantity model GIS system. A similar study was prepared for the County of Orange watersheds, California.
Completed a water quality analysis of the Santa Monica Bay non-point source and groundwater quality. Reporting results included water quality mapping, land use versus event mean concentration trends, and pollutant loadings and concentration mapping.
Provided the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) consultation studies for assessing the ramifications of new regulations by the State of California regarding water quality objective limits, as well as landfill operation guidelines. Statistical analysis reporting, including box and whisker plots, trend analysis, and water quality constituent mapping with respect to depth, location, and time (i.e., x, y, z, t) plot maps.
Directed the city of West Covina (pop. 110,000) NPDES processing, including preparation of BMP’s, SWPPP for the city maintenance yard, storm drain data base preparation, development of city ordinance for enforcement, Public Information Program, and other work tasks.
Flood Control and Flood Related Investigations
More than 1500 investigations involving flooding events, ground water issues, land slides, debris & sediment transport issues, investigations of design defects, development of flood protection systems, design reports, design schematics, and drainage studies, historic flooding, among other topics.
58 City/Countywide Master Plans of Drainage and Environmental Systems; Computer Software Application
(22) Stormwater Information Management Systems/GIS
Montclair (2006), Costa Mesa (2006), Huntington Beach (2005), San Diego County (2004), Los Angeles (2004), Vista (1997), County of San Joaquin (2001), Redlands (2001), Loma Linda (2001), Beverly Hills (1999), San Bernardino (1998), Highland, (1998), Torrance (1997), Santa Clarita (1997), Corona (1998), Imperial Irrigation District (1996), Redondo Beach (1996), Fullerton (1997), Coalinga (1995), Arcadia (1995), Santa Ana (1994), Yucaipa (1993).
(5) Graphics Data Base Management
Orange (1995), Hesperia (1994), Desert Knolls (1994), Huntington Beach (1993), Victorville (1992).
(9) Computerized City MPDs
South Laguna Beach (1993), Upland (1993), Apple Valley (1991) (1991 CCCE & LS Grand Award of Excellence: Planning), Encinitas (1991), Santa Margarita (1990), Chino Hills (1989), Rancho Cucamonga (1986), Ontario (1983), Yorba Linda (1979).
(11) City MPD Computer Modeling Services
Chino, Big Bear, Twentynine Palms, Needles, Palm Springs, Anaheim, Villa Park, Garden Grove, Fontana, Irvine, Laguna Niguel.
(11) Other Drainage Master Plans
San Sevaine Creek (60 square miles, 1994), San Antonio Creek (1992), MPD Ontario Airport (1988), Etiwanda (1987), Horno (45 square miles, 1987), Crafton Hills (1987), Ontario Industrial Area (18 square miles, 1986), Day Creek (55 square miles, 1986), Plano Trabuco (55 square miles, 1986), MPD Orange County Airport (1986), Laguna Canyon (1981).
Sediment Transport Studies, Debris, Mud Floods, Transport Processes in Fluids, Wetlands
2018 City of San Juan Capistrano, CA, Agricultural sediment generation and transport (Lara3)
2018 Mudfloods in Montecito, CA. Runoff, Fired soils, and Deep infiltration
2016-2018 City of Palmdale, CA. Dunnagon, Celebron, Faulk, three investigations flood and sediment transport, 100- year+ return frequency, high water marks assessment.
2017 City of Palmdale, CA. Flood and sediment transport, 100- year+ return frequency, high water marks assessment.
2013- 2016 Sediment transport, New Sediment source analysis. Missouri River. River Miles 400-800.
2016 Sediment and debris production in Kauai, Hawaii.
2013- 2016 Sediment transport, New Sediment source analysis. Missouri River. River Miles 400-800.
2014-2015: sediment transport and deposition in La Quinta Resort earthen channels, 2013 150+ year storm event and 2014 500+ year storm event.
2014 -2015: sediment transport and deposition in entire length of Missouri River, from North Dakota to Mississippi River confluence, from 1950 timeframe and onwards.
2014-2015: sediment transport and circulation in estuary near Imperial Beach, California
2013 Sediment transport, wetlands, Oceanside, CA (Industry Street).
2010-2013 Mudflow, mudflood, high return frequency multiday rainfall, sediment transport (Highland)
2012-2013 Mudflow, mudflood, low return frequency, peak flow rate high return frequency long duration rainfalls, design (Glaser).
2013 Assessment of HEC 6 and Fluvial model for Smuggler’s Gulch, Federal Immigration Project
2010-2013 Sediment transport analysis of International barrier, Mexico continuing hyperconcentrated flows, San Diego, CA (DOJ).
2012 (DOJ) Sediment transport and deposition at JV Farms, Arizona
2012 Sediment delivery from alluvial fan at Goldmine, Arizona
2012 Sediment transport and degradation of cayon watercourse (Hudson).
2011 Mudflood in Flintridge area of Los Angeles.
2011 San Diego Bay history of sediment in flow, river diversion, Coronado Island deposition strand evaluation.
2011 Mudflood, sediment flow, landslide (Bodlander) Los Angeles.
2011 Mudflow downstream of commercial development (Creekside) in San Bernardino County.
2010 Sediment transport analysis of International barrier, Mexico continuing hyperconcentrated flows (DOJ).
2010 Sediment yield analysis of commercial developments in Ontario, California.
2009 Debris flows in Greenwood Avenue, San Bernardino County, California.
2009 Sediment transport at BNSF railroad near Victorville, California.
2008 Mudslides in two canyons in County of San Bernardino, resulting in several deaths.
2008 Automobile accident adjacent to land grading near Lake Elsinore.
2008 Death due to tree fall due to severe rainfall.
2008 Rockfall in Cornwall, NY
2008 Sediment deposition over Mabel Paine school, due to upstream grading.
2007 Sediment Transport on Gladys Drive, Glendale, California.
2007 Sediment Transport in San Diego Bay, in pipelines draining to Convair Lagoon, California.
2006 Sediment transport reservoir in-fill, piping, dam-break, Sheep-Creek, California.
2006 Boulder eruption in Oahu, Hawaii. Rock and sediment degradation. (Onishi).
2006 Continuous simulation of sediment transport in canyon area of Alta La Jolla Road, San Diego, California.
2006 Sediment transport of PCBs, VOCs, in Switzer Creek, California.
2006 Sediment transport analysis of natural watercourse in San Juan Capistrano, California.
2005 Analysis of sediment transport from large grading project, Yorba Linda, California, and nursery debris production at school site.
2005 Analysis of sediment transport from large grading project in Yorba Linda, California, and downstream residential flooding.
2005 Sediment transport in San Diego Creek in 2-mile reach using flexible block lining, Irvine, California.
2005 Sediment transport in Compton Creek downstream of Montrose Plant, in Torrance, California. Transport analysis of sediment in major/minor events.
2005 Analysis of Mudflood, causing 14 deaths, in County of San Bernardino, Dec. 2003.
2005 Erosion and sediment transport near San Diego golf course.
2004 Sediment and Debris production, transport, 50-acre watershed, (Van Steenhuyse), Fullerton, California.
2004 Kansas District Attorney forensic search for body transported by Walnut River flow, Douglass City (Tony Wilhite)
2004 Debris transport and flooding, Fullerton, California.
2004 Evaluation of levee/groin in Santa Clara River, Ventura County, California.
2003-2004 Evaluation of sediment transport in Resort flooding, Lanai, Hawaii.
2001-2004 Transport of Aeolian Sand, PM10, saltation, creep, entrainment in “Blow Sand” area, Palm Springs, California.
2003 Sediment transport from Landfill onto Winton Road, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2003 Blow sand atmospheric transport, drought conditions, water availability, Palm Desert, California.
2003 Sediment transport in Camarillo, Ventura County, California.
2003 Topanga Canyon sediment transport and boulder transport.
2003 Analysis of 10,000-year event and debris flow at Robindale and LaPuebla, Las Vegas, Nevada.
2003 Sediment transport analysis between city of Torrance and Santa Monica Bay. DDT transport.
2002 Sediment transport and erosion near Honolulu, Hawaii.
2002 Sediment transport, erosion, flooding at Papalote Ranch, Texas.
2002 Geomorphology of Walker River (and Truckee River), California. Paleogeomorphology.
2002 Debris and sediment flow in Duck Creek, Las Vegas, Nevada.
2002 Statistical analysis of all Orange County sediment and contaminant data, San Diego Creek watershed.
2002 Sediment transport in earthen channels in Alameda County, California.
2002 Erosion in earthen fill, Lion’s Lair development, Riverside, California.
2002 Evaluation of severe rainfall, flood, debris event. (Denver Square). Las Vegas, Nevada.
2002 Analysis of El Nino rainfall, flooding, debris event, Blue Lagoon, California.
2002 Sediment transport and deposition at Kirkland, New York.
1999-2002 Debris flow in Oahu, Hawaii
1999-2002 Sediment transport analysis at Amtrak train derailment, Kingman, Arizona.
2002 Sediment transport and mud flood, debris flow, on Catalina Island
2001 Transport of fuel in surface water, sediment, and atmosphere in Bellingham, Washington. Olympic Pipeline explosion.
2001 Review of FLUVIAL 12 Computer Model
2000 Erosion of hillside slopes in the City of Camarillo, California (Barba slide)
2000-2001 Stability of erosion control measures in San Diego Creek, Irvine, California
2000 HEC-6 and GSTARS analysis of Lobecks Pass, California near Needles
2000 Erosion analysis of slope failures in Dana Point, California
2000 Sediment transport and deposition analysis of 3 sediment basins in Laguna Canyon, California
2000 Sediment transport and erosion analysis of Santa Paula River, Santa Paula, California
1999-2000 Transport of DDT in surface water, groundwater, sediment, and atmosphere, Montrose, California
1999 Erosion Analysis in Needles, California, of PG&E gas line due to Highway Construction.
1999 Erosion Analysis in Morning Canyon, Newport Beach, California, leading to landslide of 3 homes (Weinkoop).
1999 Transport of fuel in groundwater, sediment, and atmosphere at Selby Pond, Donner Pass, and El Mira, from Pipeline leaks.
1999 Evaluation of Mississippi River sedimentation leading to 80,000 ton Bright Field cargo ship collision with Hilton Hotel at New Orleans.
1998 Sediment transport in Malibu Canyon, leading to landslides of several homes (Salinger), California.
1998 Analysis of Catalina Island debris, overflow of dam.
1998 Sediment and Debris transport analysis of San Sevaine and Etiwanda Creek.
1998 Evaluation of Laguna Lakes and sediment inflow
1998 Evaluation of sediment inflow at Prado Dam, California
1998 Evaluation of scour at Mojave River near Victor Valley, California, leading to pipeline exposure.
1998 Evaluation of sedimentation at Victor Villa mobile home park in Victorville, California
1998 Evaluation of Housatonic River, and PCB/sediment transport, Mass. Atmosphere transport analysis.
1998 Study of 80,000,000 gallon sewage spill, including debris and scouring in Thousand Oaks, California (Arroyo Conejo Creek).
1997-1998 Storm Events, including Fire Analysis, throughout Laguna Canyon, California. Atmosphere transport of particulates.
1997-1998 Erosion Analysis of Gila River in Vicinity of Gillespie Dam
1997-1998 Evaluation of Amoco refinery storm water pollution, sediment, and related health effects in Philadelphia
1997-1998 Evaluation of PCB transport in Fox, Muddy, and Housatonic Rivers and sediment.
1997-1998 Gila River (Gillespie Dam failure mechanisms due to scour)
1997 Analysis of fire and sediment transport and debris in Malibu Canyon, California. Atmospheric transport of fired particulates.
1997 Evaluation of sediment transport in Kauai, Hawaii
1997 Failure of 5 concrete dams near Quebec, Canada, erosion and bottom scour
1997 PCB Sediment Transport in Mud River, Kentucky
1997 Mohave River Sediment Transport Studies
1997 City of Malibu Las Flores Canyon Landslide and Sediment Transport
1996-1997 Analysis of Oso Creek near Oso Ranch, and bank erosion of slopes
1996 Murrieta Creek Sediment Transport and Flood of Temecula
1996 City of Los Angeles storm water quality model development
1996 Sediment transport analysis of Aliso Creek
1996 Evaluation of Proposed Sunshine Canyon Landfill, groundwater, sediment, runoff.
1996 San Joaquin Hills Transportation Corridor Runoff Management Plan (RMP), involving 42 streams and rivers of various sizes, including analysis of water quality, sediment transport, runoff and mitigation.
1996 San Joaquin Hills transportation Corridor Erosion Control Plan
1996 Bonita Creek RMP (Runoff Management Plan)
1996 Ford Road RMP
1996 Transport of fireworks phosphorus, Disney RMP, Anaheim, California
1986-1996 Yucaipa MPD, Apple Valley MPD, Victorville MPD, Desert Knolls MPD, Hesperia MPD including NPDES annual load estimates, erosion and scour analysis
1995 San Joaquin Hills Transportation Corridor Erosion and Sediment Transport Study
1994-1995 Debris Basins for Orange County Integrated Waste Management Division (IWMD)
1993 Apple Valley Dry Lake environmental impacts analysis; transport effects.
1993 Sediment Transport Study for Tijuana River, Mexico.
1993 Aliso Creek (20 mile stream study), sediment transport analysis
1991 Bridge Pier Scour Analysis for Arroyo Trabuco Bridge Crossings
1990 Tijeras Creek and Arroyo Trabuco Sediment Transport Study
1990 Livingston-Graham Gravel Mining/Arroyo Trabuco Equilibrium Channel
1988 Sediment and Debris Manual, County of San Bernardino
Water Quality Studies, SWPPP, Monitoring Plans, RMPs, NPDES
2016-2018 City of West, Texas. Fertilizer plant explosion cost analysis.
2017 City of West, Texas. Fertilizer plant explosion cost analysis.
2014-2017 Analysis of chemical degradation of pipeline system (Tahiti Village, Las Vegas, Nevada).
2014 Degradation of pipeline system (Tahiti Village, LV)
2009-2010 Groundwater perchlorate and VOC contamination, Rialto, California
2005-2007 Analysis of perchlorate and other constituents at Highland Glen, Henderson, Nevada.
2007 BMP performance at General Dynamics, TDY, Port Authority, at Convair Lagoon, California.
2006-2007 Surface water transport of BTEX and Chromium in northern California (Goldsberry).
2006 Surface water, transport of PCB’s and other contaminants near Cambell Industries Boat Yard, Switzer Creek, San Diego, California.
2006 Sediment and nutrient transport into reservoir at Sheep-Creek, California.
2005 Development of Volume Based BMP design procedure for San Bernardino County WQMP.
2005 Surface Water transport of chromium 6 and sediment in Willits, California.
2005 Review of SWPPP for two large grading projects in Yorba Linda, California.
2005 Water Quality analysis of groundwater in Castaic Lake region, California.
2005 Lake Merced water quality analysis and stormwater management, San Francisco, California.
2005 Multi-lake hydrologic and water quality analysis at Lake Merced, California. Phosphates, nitrates, golf courses, coliform in groundwater, flood control and risk reduction. Tunnel flow capacity analysis. Hydrologic balance analysis.
2005 TDS transport in sediment near San Diego golf course.
2005 Transport and fate of TCE, PCE in surface water, Santa Rosa, California.
2005 Development of Hydrologic Conditions of Concern procedure Manual, County of San Bernardino.
2003-2005 Analysis of DCE, PCE, TCE, BTEX, PCB in surface and groundwater at National Cement Plant, Kern County, California.
2004 Water Quality holding time criteria development, 85-percentile of average storm analysis, County of San Bernardino, Water Resources Division.
2003-2004 Analysis of potable water quality, groundwater pumping, (Nordenstrom) California.
2004 Chromium 6 surface water transport analysis (Hernandez) near Willits, California.
2003 City of Yorba Linda, Oil Tank Farm drainage, RMP, MPDs.
2003 Analysis of TDS, viruses, bacteria, raw sewage, in New River, and Salton Sea. RMP. Evaporation impacts to Salton Sea salinity.
2003 Evaluation: RMP of Landfill at Winton Road, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2002 Water Quality Loadings and Permit Compliance, Caltrans Freeway, City of Upland, and San Antonio Lakes, California. SWPP. Pollutant loadings. Impact Analysis. Mitigation Measures.
2002 Master Plan Annual Pollutant Loadings and Water Quality analysis, City of Huntington Beach, CA.
2001 Master Plan Annual Pollutant Loadings, San Diego County
2000 Sewer system water quality issues in Brentwood MHP, San Diego, California
2000 Transport of DDT from Montrose Chemical Plant, Torrance, California
2000 Analysis of gasoline transport in Mission Valley, San Diego, California
1999 Analysis of DDT transport, in stormwater, near Montrose Plant, Torrance, California
1998 Annual Pollutant Loadings Estimation, City of Corona Master Plan of Drainage
1997 Public Information Program for Brown Water Usage
1997 Evaluation of BMP usage in Southern California (Struble).
1997 DHM analysis of Newport Bay circulation, Newport Beach, California, algae growth potential
1996 Disney WESTCOT RMP (Runoff Management Plan)
1994 Redlands MPD and annual pollutant loadings
1994 Loma Linda MPD and annual pollutant loadings
1994 Santa Ana MPD and annual pollutant loadings
1990-1994 Annual pollutant loading estimates for cities of Torrance, Redlands, Santa Ana, Loma Linda, Yucaipa
1993 San Joaquin Hills Transportation Corridor RMP
1993 Bonita Creek RMP
1993 Ford Road RMP
1993 Yucaipa MPD
1993 Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board statistical analysis
1991-1992 City of West Covina NPDES multi-year services
1991 Livingston-Graham Gravel Mining Co. RMP
1990, 1991 Santa Margarita: Arroyo Trabuco RMP, First BMP System in State of California: Las Flores RMP and BMP System
1990 Encinitas MPD: two estuary/bay circulation studies and water quality preservation analysis
Groundwater and Contaminant Transport Studies (Also see prior sections)
2018-2019. Millennium Tower. Groundwater modeling using FEFLOW and MODFLOW. Dewatering assessment.
2019. Pelican Heights. Soil moisture transport. Drainage.
2017- 2018 Millineum Towers 55 story high rise building sinking and tilting. Los Angeles, California. Dewatering and groundwater assessment. Long term precipitation assessment.
2016-2018, Three Investigations, Seepage analysis, Modeling, Infinity. San Jose. Martin
2017-2018 Canada land assessment. Toxic soils. “ORIGIN- MATERIALS”
2016- 2017 Computer modeling, chemistry analysis, rate and transport analysis, Mid Valley Sanitary Landfill, San Bernardino County, CA. Radial diagrams, PCE, TCE and other constituents. Vadose zone 350 column. VLEACH.
2015- 2016 Soil- water transport modeling of small levee breach, La Quinta Resort, La Quinta, CA.
2016 Review of MODFLOW model of Los Angeles area groundwater regime Soils. Stratigraphy, fate and transport, San Fernando GW unit.
2016 Groundwater assessment of high level elevations in Irwindale pits, Liquefaction, Cumulative Departure Method analysis.
2013-2016 High groundwater levels and freeway impacts to Forest Lawn Cemetery, Los Angeles.
2016 Street subsidence in residential neighborhood over storm drain pipe network (Hampton Place, Ca.)
2015- 2017 Groundwater history since 1860, modeling, Irwindale gravel pits, Irwindale, Ca.
2013- 2016 Groundwater impacts from Missouri River, RM 400 to 800
2015 Groundwater analysis of landslide at Resort (Pomo Indians)
2015 Rising groundwater at Imperial Beach, Ca. Ocean influence, High water in beaches.
2015 Rising soil water. Residential complex (Wheats)
2014-2015: Entire Missouri River water level variation and related groundwater recharge into floodplain. Groundwater modeling. Data analysis.
2014-2015: Groundwater seepage inundation and circulation in estuary near Imperial Beach, California. Damage claims to residential structures.
2014-2015 Groundwater budget assessment and modeling Mudflow (Glaser).
2013-2015 Groundwater analysis and unsaturated flow assessment in Malibu, California leading to landslide (Rappaport).
2013-2014 Analysis of MODFLOW modeling of Mid-Valley Landfill and vicinity groundwater contamination plumes. Cleanup measures and assessment.
2014 Groundwater analysis of sewer main and pump intrusion (Sunrise Ridge).
2014 Groundwater analysis and water budget model of Landslide (Overlook).
2014 Groundwater analysis of massive landslide (Dreamweaver).
2013-2014 Rising groundwater table and sinkhole development (Hampton Place).
2013-2014 Groundwater analysis and modeling of percolation pit effects on sewer line trench failure (Lancaster).
2011-2014 Water budget and groundwater analysis leading to landslide in San Clemente, CA (Arriola).
2013 Algid climate groundwater hydrology (Magee)
2011-2013 Groundwater recharge of Colonies storage area from San Antonio Canyon and Upland. SAWCO contract issues. (SBC vs. Caltrans)
2012 Storm drain pipe exfiltration and soil movement, Fullerton, CA (Komaromi).
2011-2012 Soil water, percolation leading to landslide uphill source (Rouland)
2011-2012 Groundwater sources relevant to alleged high groundwater conditions (Jabour)
2008-2012 Analysis of groundwater VOC and Perchlorate plumes at Mid-Valley landfill (Mid-Valley).
2011 Landslide in San Clemente (Cunningham). Historic soil water budgeting & analysis.
2011 Landslide in Santa Clara County. Historic sequencing of slides. Groundwater historic budget (McKillop).
2011 Soil settlement in San Clemente. Historic soil water budget. Groundwater flow (Mitchelle-Johnson).
2011 Landslide in Fullerton , California. Historic budget.
2011 Soil water budget for class actions (Amaya)
2011 Settlement analysis in homes (Bledsoe)
2010-2011 Earth movement caused by soil water & algid conditions (Ellerman).
2011 Single residence, groundwater impacts analysis in Tustin, California (Jabour)
2011 Landslide in San Juan Capistrano, CA (Sheen).
2011 Mudflow post fire in Flintridge, Los Angeles.
2010-2011 Rising groundwater and soil water soil expansion. Septic system analysis. Several homes in Pahrump Nevada.
2011 Sinkhole in mobile home park in Rancho Cucamonga.
2010 Analysis of groundwater budget, landslide, San Clemente, California.
2009-2010 Groundwater modeling review of Rialto-Colton, California region.
2009 Analysis of high pressure leaking water main, rainfall plus irrigation, (La Jolla Landslide)
2009 Huntington Beach groundwater surcharge due to sewer construction.
2009 Wetlands due to remediation groundwater pumping (Shato).
2009 Landslides in La Jolla, California. Water line breaks, dry weather (Colony Hill).
2009 Soil-water budget and landslide in Dana Point, California (Ferry).
2009 Soil-water budget and landslides in Oceanside, California (Tingzon) and Carlsbad, California (Marbella).
2009 Soil-water budget and landslide in San Juan Capistrano, California (Washington Holdings).
2008 Soil water movement in arid soils and concrete, in Arizona.
2008 Water budget analysis for Landslide in San Juan Capistrano (Bodiwala).
2008 Water budget analysis for Landslide in San Juan Capistrano (Freudenberger).
2008 Malibu landslide. Water budget analysis (Malibu Investments).
2008 Sinkhole near storm drain CMP.
2008 Analysis of water budget for La Conchita landslide.
2008 Irrigation and leaking water pipeline analysis in Palm Desert.
2008 Land slide due to gopher activity and increased infiltration (Karim).
2008 Transport of sewage in preferential pathway at construction site.
2008 Seepage analysis of alleged soil water at beach property (Gaviota).
2008 Landslide impacts due to leaking fire hydrant (La Costa).
2008 Landslide impacts due to leaking water meter (Helix Water District).
2007 Land slide hydrology at Gladys Drive, Glendale, California.
2007 Land slide hydrology at City of Pasadena, Iverness Road.
2007 Analysis of vadose zone hydrology in Phoeniz, AZ (Goree).
2007 Heavy Metals , PCB, BTEX transport to Convair Lagoon, California Tidal influence. Back wave / run-up effects.
2007 Record two-week rainfall infiltration analysis at Gladys Drive, California, causing landslide.
2007 High groundwater analysis at 28 residential homes, Laguna Niguel, California.
2007 Transport of salts in arid soils, Phoenix, Arizona.
2007 Rising Groundwater in residential tract (Hall).
2006 Landslide hydrology and 23 homes. Hall v. UDC, California.
2006 Rising Ocean Level flooding in Honolulu, Hawaii.
2006-2007 Evaluation of rising groundwater at dam and reservoir, Ventura, California.
2006-2007 Evaluation of PCE in groundwater in Santa Rosa, California.
2006-2007 Pipeline leak analysis in Beverly Hills, California.
2006-2007 Analysis of water movement in coupled groundwater regime (Chu).
2006 Analysis of groundwater and vadose zone water accumulation near Santa Barbara, California. Mold.
2006 Analysis of perched groundwater in Highland Glen area of Henderson, Nevada. Water quality analysis. Analysis of compaction faults.
2006 Analysis of Percolation into OCWD groundwater supply in Orange County, California. Diversion analysis. Loss analysis. Percolation in Santa Ana River. Orange County, California.
2006 Analysis of possible storm drain pipe leakage and elevated groundwater, City of Beverly Hills, California.
2006 Analysis of water content and tree failure leading to death. San Diego, California.
2006 High groundwater. Preferential pathways. TDS. ET analysis. Anaheim Hills, California. (Alden, Shea).
2006 Groundwater perching. Temperature. Mold. Gypsum. (Wigle). Santa Barbara, California.
2006 Evaluation of new water reservoir and leakage analysis (SSC Construction). Ventura, California.
2005-2006 Analysis of contaminant transport in Switzer Creek, San Diego Bay, California.
2005 Soil water transport and ET studies for Anaheim Hills, California for several hundred residences. Water balance studies.
2005 Soil water transport and ET studies for several dozen residences in Fullerton, California. Soil water flux in concrete.
2005 Groundwater uplift analysis of clogged filter fabric in flexible lining of two-mile reach of San Diego Creek, Irvine, California.
2005 Groundwater and surface water transport of Chromium 6 in Willits, California.
2005 Transport analysis of DDT in Compton Creek and tributary creeks in Torrance, California.
2005 Soil water transport and hydrologic balance analysis near land slides in San Clemente, California.
2005 Soil water transport and hydrologic balance analysis of residential tract near Castaic Lake, California.
2005 Soil water transport and hydrologic balance analysis of residential tract in Fullerton, California.
2005 Soil water and groundwater transport of coliform tributary to Lake Merced, California.
2005 Groundwater plume transport, analysis of BTEX, PCB, VOCs, in rising GW in Oahu, Hawaii (Island Demolition). Tidal effects.
2004 Elevated soil water content (Hickey), Orange County, California.
2004 Ground water and soil water analysis in Los Angeles, (Brame) California.
2004 Transport of VOCs, BTEX, PCE, DCE, TCE, DCA, TCA, LA Airport, California
2004 Moisture flux through concrete. Diffusion of salts. (castron)
2004 Analysis of TDS, cement Kiln dust, chlorinated hydrocarbons, BTEX, TCA, TCE, DCA, DCE, PCB, groundwater flow in fractured and faulted media, Tejachapi, California
2004 Groundwater hydrostatic pressure analysis, waterproofing of office center, Irvine, California (OPUS)
2004 Landslide, Laguna Canyon, California (Merz)
2003-2004 Groundwater transport, sulphate transport in saturated/unsaturated soils, water balance analysis, Castaic Lake, California (Brame)
2003-2004 Analysis of landslide development in San Clemente, California (Callen)
2003-2004 Analysis of soil water excess, Highland Glen, Henderson, Nevada. Perchlorate sampling and analysis
2003 Soil water excess, Brentwood, California (Horky)
2003 Review of perchlorate modeling and transport, Mid-Valley Landfill, San Bernardino County, California
2003 Analysis of TDS, perchlorate, coliform at Arroyo Grande, Henderson, California
2003 Groundwater analysis of river levee failure (San Joaquin River)
2003 Groundwater supply and TDS levels of inflow into New River and Salton Sea, Imperial Valley, California
2003 Man-made preferential pathways and groundwater transport in land development, Henderson, Nevada.
2003 Groundwater drainage and retaining wall system design, Brentwood, California.
2003 Water Supply, soil water saturation, landscape methodology review, moisture accumulation, percolation tests, in Anaheim Hills, California.
2003 Analysis of releases, BTEX, MTBE, lead, groundwater flow, plume evolution, soil gas, soil TPH, CPT/LIF, Hydropunch data, at Mission Valley, San Diego, California.
2002 BTEX in groundwater, and remediation, in Washoe County, Nevada. (Washoe County District Attorney). Fractured rock groundwater transport.
2002 Usage of groundwater in Palm Desert, California, for control of blow sand.
2002 Modeling and analysis of Kaiser TDS plume in Ontario, California. Mercury. PCB, BTEX. Percolation ponds. Perchlorate.
2002 Infiltration tests, groundwater modeling, domestic water use, Anaheim Hills, California.
2002 Evaluation of Perchlorate, VOCs, heavy metals, PCB, saturated and unsaturated GW transport, Baldwin Park Operable Unit, California.
2002 Evaluation of computer programs DYNSYSTEM, FeFLOW, MODFLOW, CFEST
2002 Analysis of landslide hydrologic balance in San Clemente, California.
2002 Rising groundwater table model of world’s largest man-made reservoir in Hemet, California, including unsaturated flow, groundwater wells, cut-off walls, dam design. Dewatering.
2001 Development of computer model of free product exchange with groundwater flow (Santa Monica Bay).
2001 Analysis of water banking and environmental impacts in CADIZ MWD recharge site, Mohave Desert, California.
2001 3D Computer model of soil-water flow, sewage transport, in San Clemente slope failures
2001 3D Computer model of storm drain leakage in City of Calabasas, California.
2001 Groundwater transport of fuel, free product, in Mission Valley, San Diego, California.
2001 Surface and subsurface interface of DDT at Montrose Plant, Torrance, California.
2000 Dewatering analysis of Coke construction plant near Lake Michigan
2000 Model of chloride transport in arid soils around 25-foot diameter buried concrete water pipeline.
2000 Groundwater effects, soil-water transport and slope failures in Dana Point, California
2000 Groundwater Model balance for Horse Creek, Wyoming
2000 QC of Groundwater Model of Santa Monica Bay area, California (Conoco).
1999 Groundwater analysis of landslide in San Juan Capistrano, California (horizontal shear plane analysis); Power vs. Work analysis.
1999 Groundwater transport of TCE, BTEX, PCB, VOC’s, near Camp Ono, California
1999 Groundwater effects of landslide, San Clemente, California
1999 Remediation study analysis of ammonium perchlorate plume, and other contaminants, including BTEX, PCB, VOCs, near Henderson, Nevada
1999 Groundwater and TCE transport in Inland Valley Development Area A (Donut Hole), near Redlands, California
1999 Analysis of MTBE, diesel, and gasoline surface and ground water transport in three high pressure line leaks (Selby Pond, Donner Pass, El Mira)
1998 Analysis of groundwater sources and soil saturation in residential tract in Corona, California
1998 Analysis of LNAPL, DNAPL, and PCB transport in groundwater and sediment, at Housatonic River, near GE plant, Pittsfield, Massachusetts
1998 Analysis of ammonium perchlorate plume evolution in Henderson, Nevada (PEPCON) and impacts to Las Vegas Wash and Lake Mead.
1998 Evaluation of rising groundwater mounding and wetlands creation at Koliber site near Lake Elsinore, California
1998 Evaluation of rising groundwater mounding at Prado Dam, California
1998 Evaluation of leaking pipes, and groundwater rise leading to landslides, Laguna Beach, California
1997-1998 Evaluation of Groundwater Resources (Quality Control); Jordan vs Iraq
1997 Analysis of Fuel Oil contamination VOC’s, PCB, BTEX, at Helm’s Pit, Sparks, Nevada
1997 Analysis of soil water saturation front evolution at Seacliff Sinkhole, San Francisco, California
1996-1997 Groundwater cleanup using strippers and reclaimed water for landscaping, Hughes Corporation, Fullerton, California
1996 Fuel oil contaminant transport, 3 LUSTs, groundwater contamination, BTEX analysis. Tipton, Willows, Fresno, California
1996 Noble Creek ground water recharge facility analysis, Riverside County, California
1996 Evaluation of ground water resources in CADIZ region, Mohave Desert, California
1992-1995 San Grigornio Pass Water Agency groundwater model development and calibration: quality control
1988-1994 Soil water saturation study of coastal slopes (3 litigations; Pacific Palisades)
1993 Soil water saturation study: landslide (litigation; San Juan Capistrano)
1993 Beverly Hills Water Rights/Safe-Yield Analysis of groundwater pumping
1992 MWD: Landfill Groundwater Regulation Impact Study
1990-1992 Soil water saturation study of San Clemente slopes, 2 litigations
1989-1992 Soil water saturation study (litigation, Procopio et al., 1992)
1991-1992 Gasoline Incursion Investigation, ground water contamination at existing garage structure, Los Angeles, California
1991 Livingston-Graham Gravel Mining Company; GW contaminant plume migration study
1991 Soil water saturation study (litigation; Big Rock Mesa)
1990 Kaiser Steel Corporation contaminated plume groundwater study, Fontana, California
1988 Apple Valley MPD Water Conservation Study
1987 Milliken Landfill flood control basin infiltration study
1987 BKK Landfill groundwater study
1986 Tanana River levee stability study
1983-1985 Development of Complex Variable Boundary Element Method (CVBEM) model for contaminated groundwater transport modeling
1980-1982 Development of U.S. Army CRREL 2- and 3-D groundwater model for algid soils
1981 Environmental studies for stream crossing freezing for Alaskan Chilled Gas line (FLUOR Corp.)
Flooding/Floodplain Inundation Studies/Rainfall Analyses/Dam-Break Analysis
2019 City of Livermore, Ca. Flooding investigation. – Preliminary Rainfall Analysis. Sediment transport. Head cutting effects.
2019 Oahu, Hawaii – Flooding investigation. Hiway drainage assessment.
2019 City of Victorville. High intensity short duration precipitation event. Record drought. Roadway flow impact hydraulics.
2019 Nuss-Rick Investigation. Earth movement. Record long duration drought. Sudden shift to wet season.
2019 Oceanside. Multiple flooding investigations. Severe droughts effects.
2019 City of Long Beach. Multiple flooding investigations.
2018 City of San Diego flooding in urban area due to high intensity precipitation event. (Notar v She)
2018 Hillside failure and slumping caused by high intensity rainfall event. Blue Sapphire development. California
2018 High intensity precipitation event on highway system. Automobile accident. Geometry of lane striping and construction. City of San Juan Capistrano, Ca.
2018 Arid area flooding in the City of Barstow, Ca. Culvert analysis. High debris flow. Residential tract flooding
2018 Arid area hydrology and high intensity short duration precipitation event. MORA. County of San Bernardino, Ca.
2016- 2018 City of Palmdale, Ca. Dunnagon, Celebron, Faulk, 3 flood cases. 2015 Storm event, 1000+ year return frequency, rainfall DOPPLER radar analysis.
2013- 2016 Surface water flooding from Missouri River, River Mile 400 to 800. 30 year simulation.
2016 Assessment of hillside drainage residential channels in Porter Ranch, Ca. (Sorrento).
2016 San Diego Bay tidal and beach hydraulics, (SLPR).
2016 Trails runoff traversing natural hillside in LA County; mud flow, (Morris).
2016 California Hillside runoff from Nursery to residential tract. (Murrieta)
2016 Nevada Seven system assessment and construction defects. (Sunrise Ridge)2013- 2016 Surface water flooding from Missouri River, RM 400 to 800.
2015 Flooding of residential beach property, Debris.Kauai.Hotel.
2014-2015: flood analysis of entire Missouri River. Floodplain inundation trends. Impacts from changes in upstream dam operations. 1993 event and 2011 storm event floodplain analysis. Computer modeling assessment. CFD evaluation.
2014-2015: La Quinta Resort earthen channels, 2013 150+ year storm event and 2014 500+ year storm event, and flooding damage assessment. Storage pond erosion assessment and earthen channel confluence. CFD modeling of storage pond release for both events.
2015: Flooding in Kauai due to storm drain inlet clogging from golf course and other vegetation. Assessment of grated inlet capacity and storm drain capacity. Overall system limitation assessment.
2015: City of West, Texas, assessment of utility impairment and impacts from fertilizer plant explosion.
2014-2015 Assessment of flood damages at General Motors Corp., Detroit, Michigan.
2014-2015 Flood analysis for flooding of City of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, including collapse of railroad bridge.
2014 Analysis and description of sewer system failure (Sunrise Ridge).
2014 Flooding of several sites (Sunday Bazaar v CCSF).
2014 Erosion of elevated roadway from canyon floods (Wymbs) Jaffe v Bradshaw.
2014 Development sequence and flood control system timing. City of Huntington Beach.
2014 Flooding of several sites in Imperial Valley
2014 Flooding of freeway travel lanes, causation factors leading to traffic accident (Cook v TCA).
2014 Inundation of Bank of America floors due to water pump impeller jamming valve gate (B of A v San Francisco).
2014 Flooding of regional areas at Santee Padre Dam.
2013 Flooding risk changes due to watercourse changes (Sloan).
2013 Pavement influence in freeway accident, CA (Acoba).
2013 Flood risk assessment at Industry Street channel, Oceanside, CA.
2013 Flooding damage assessment of over $300M in claims regarding Missouri River and tributaries, and BNSF.
2013 Global climate change impacts at LA Bay Club, CA.
2013 Flood risk assessment at Kuhn-Hay.
2011-2013 Assessment of flood storage upstream of Mexico Hwy at San Diego 3 canyons to Tijuana Estuary (State/ County vs. DOJ)
2012 (DOJ) Flood analysis and water canal history at JV Farms, Arizona.
2011-2012 High RF storm analysis and modeling in Los Angeles, California (Saugus).
2012 Alluvial fan flood assessment in Goldmine, Arizona.
2011-2012 Flood event analysis and remedy of depressed parking structure, San Diego, California. (Montgomery Fields).
2011-2012 Analysis of levee failure in Fernley, California. Two and one dimensional modeling (Fernley).
2011-2012 Analysis of levee failure in Merced, California, at Beachwood. UNET modeling (Beachwood).
2010-2012 Assessment of flooding causation factors for 88 locations on behalf of consortium of insurance carriers for Ohio, Cumberland, Mississippi, and Missouri Rivers. Modeling
2011 Flooding of residential properties due to upstream culvert debris blockage (Bishop).
2010-2011 Severe flooding of Industrial area due to Highway culvert in New Hampshire (Henkel).
2010 Flooding throughout Chicago, Illinois, “flow-blocker,” CLASS ACTION.
2009 Las Vegas floods due to Freeway.
2009 Flooding in Tucson, Arizona due to railroad culvert.
2009 Homeowner drainage and retaining wall seepage (Halavi).
2009 Drainage issues in Yucca Valley tract. Septic systems.
2009 Fire drainage debris flows in Greenwood Avenue, San Bernardino, California.
2009 Saddleback College, California, flooding of homeowners.
2009 Ka Loko Dam breach, Kauai, Hawaii.
2009 Flooding at numerous sites in San Francisco, California.
2009 Flooding at Saddleback College, California (Sierkowski).
2009 Flooding and Sediment transport at BNSF Railroad, Victorville, California.
2009 Frozen water slip/fall in Cornwall, New York.
2009 Flooding in the City of Palisades, California (Hickson).
2009 Flooding in Oahu, Hawaii.
2008 Flooding in Oahu, Hawaii (Curtis Sherwood).
2008 Flooding of hillside residential area. Groundwater seepage. (RAPP).
2008 Rainfall analysis for City of El Cajon.
2008 Flooding of industrial area due to upstream development (CASO).
2008 Floods in Keller Texas of June 18, 2007
2008 Flooding of residential areas near new development in Yorba Linda (Hodges).
2008 Flooding in Cleveland Ohio. Drainage/sump system.
2008 Four flood events at Mabel Paine school, Yorba Linda, 2004 season.
2008 Analysis of floods in Oceanside, California for 2004 season.
2008 Traffic accident on Freeway (Brooksby).
2008 Flooding at San Sevaine Channel, San Bernardino (Ameron).
2008 Flooding at AFG plant, Victorville.
2007 Analysis of pipe lining construction and hydraulic impacts, San Francisco, Hetch-Hetchy distribution line relining.
2007 Analysis of streetflow hydraulics on Iverness Road, Pasadena, California.
2007 Hydrometeorology analysis between years 1998 and 2004, Anaheim, California.
2007 Analysis of Skagit River 3000 square mile watershed in Washington.
2007 Analysis and simulation of Hurricane Katrina at Biloxi, Mississippi. Storm surge. Wind analysis.
2007 Analysis of Hurricane damage at Driscoll, Texas. Street pavement and wastewater treatment facility damage assessment.
2007 Hydrometeorology Storm Reports for County of Orange, California.
2007 Calibration analysis of County of Orange Hydrology Manual.
2007 Technical review of hydrology study of San Juan Creek, California.
2007 Calibration study for County of San Diego Hydrology Manual.
2007 Calibration study for County of San Bernardino Arid Hydrology.
2007 Severe storm flooding at Seacliff and Buckingham areas, Ventura, California. Sediment transport. Slope failures.
2007 Flooding along horse-trail and residential tract (Freudenberger).
2007 Flooding in Las Vegas, Nevada due to Residential Tract design.
2007 Analysis of Doppler radar for AFG flooding, Victorville, California.
2007 Analysis of Doppler radar, rainfall, flooding, hail, cyclonic event, railroad, in Los Angeles, California.
2007 Analysis of Delaware River drowning incident.
2006-2007 Analysis of streetflow hydraulics, ALERT data, telemetry data, for Gladys Drive, Glendale, California.
2006 Flooding of residential homes in Las Vegas, Nevada (Kane).
2006 Flooding of Sleepy Hollow Apartments, San Diego, California.
2006 Flooding of residential tract adjacent to golf course river, San Diego, California.
2006 Earthen Dam-Failure. Rainfall analysis. Doppler radar. Sediment transport. (Sheep Creek) California.
2006 Analysis of pipeline capacity losses due to relining. Hetch-Hetchy Reservoir. San Francisco, California.
2006 Severe flooding and Doppler Radar analysis in Victorville, California (AFG).
2006 Flooding of golf course waterway due to bridges and obstructions. San Diego, California.
2006 Physical model of apartment complex combined sewer and storm drain network (Chubb).
2006 Severe rainfall analysis, flooding, in Boulder City, Nevada (Vermef).
2006 Severe rainfall analysis in four events, flooding, San Francisco, California.
2006 Multiple storm analysis in City of San Diego, California (Metzger).
2005 Flooding of street intersection and traffic fatality, Riverside, California (Munoz).
2005 Flooding in Daly City and San Francisco, California. Tunnel capacity analysis.
2005 Flooding of Manele Bay Resort, Lanai, Hawaii.
2005 Calibration of County of San Diego Hydrology Manual.
2005 Water Tank release near Elko, Nevada.
2004 Evaluation of Flood Risk in City of Norco, California.
2005 Rising Tide flooding, global warming review, Oahu, Hawaii.
2004 Evaluation of Dam removal impacts, Ventura, California.
2004 Flooding and Sediment transport in Boulder, Nevada.
2004 Physical model of storm drain flow into retention basin (VanSteenhuyse).
2004 Flooding of March 15, 16, 2003 at Fullerton, California (Van Steenhuyse).
2004 Floodplain analysis in Borrego Springs, California (Schmid Engineering)
2004 Flood channel plan optimization in Yucaipa, California (Palmer)
2004 Flooding analysis, rainfall analysis, debris transport, Fullerton, California.
2004 LOMR, HEC-RAS analysis, levee stability, Santa Clara River, Ventura County, California.
2003-2004 Flood analysis at Manele Bay Resort in Lanai, Hawaii.
2004 Meso-scale rainfall and flooding in Watts, Los Angeles, California.
2003-2004 Flood of Crystal Lakes, Illinois, Community, 1996, 1999; sewer system overload, Lift station analysis; infiltration into sewer main.
2003 Flooding of Fletcher-Jones Mercedes, Las Vegas, Nevada.
2003 Review of FLO-2D computer program.
2003 15,000-year return frequency rainfall super cell at Duck Creek, Nevada.
2003 Floodplain analysis (3) along Duck Creek, Las Vegas, Nevada.
2003 Floodplain analysis of Walker River, California.
2003 Evaluation of multiple flood control basins in series, runoff, design storm centering, percolation, San Antonio Lakes, Upland, California.
2003 Hurricanes, flood history, channel/overland flow, 1000 square mile catchment at Driscoll, Texas.
2003 Evaluation of channel storage, debris production, inlet clogging, groundwater, at Ventura County, Camarillo, California.
2002 Flood event evaluation near Papalote Ranch, Texas.
2002 Evaluation of 6,000-year return frequency rainfall and wind event, Las Vegas, Nevada.
2002 Historic flooding, flooding event analysis, Huntington Apartments, Huntington Beach, California.
2002 Flooding in Oahu, Hawaii. Extreme rainfall and wind event.
2002 Analysis of flooding in earthen channel system. Levees. Bridge crossings. Tidal influences. Areas in Alameda County, California.
2001 Flooding at UPRR Railroad embankment, Bayside, Wisconsin. Extreme rainfall and wind events.
2001 Wetlands development in Halfmoon Bay, California
2000 Evaluation of project delays in world’s largest man-made reservoir, MWD, Hemet, California
2000-2001 Evaluation of FEMA Inundation area, for Shea Homes using UNET. Levee failure analysis.
2000 Floodplain inundation studies in Costa Mesa, California
2000 Massive flooding of San Joaquin Valley, California and Modesto Irrigation District, levee failures, dam operation of Don Pedro dam and other dams, stream gauge evaluation.
2000 Floodplain inundation studies for Del Mar, Huntington Beach, California, adjacent to leveed channels
2000 Floodplain inundation studies upstream of 405 Freeway at Newland Ave., Huntington Beach, California. UNET and DHM modeling.
2000 Evaluation of 1 and 2-Dimensional Flow Computer Programs
1999 Analysis of extreme rainfall and wind event (Byerly), Newport Beach, California
1999 Risk analysis of hypothetical water tank failure, City of Beverly Hills, California
1999 Analysis of flood control basin feasibility at Kuo property, Corona, California, including levees
1998 Failure of Railroad bridge and train derailment near Kingman, Arizona
1998 Analysis of natural debris dam failure at Catalina Island, California
1996-1998 Failure analysis of Gillespie Dam, Phoenix, Arizona
1996 Failure analysis of five concrete dams near Quebec, Canada
1994-2000 Hydrologic and hydraulic analysis, weir overflow, for San Sevaine Creek, California.
1996 Physical model of Jurupa Basin and San Sevaine Creek.
1993 OCEMA C05/C06 Inundation Study, and levee failure analysis
1993 City of Lakewood, Los Angeles County Drainage Area Inundation Study, of Los Angeles River, from levee failures
1991 City of Huntington Beach, Koll Co., Bolsa Chica Inundation Study, of Santa Ana River overflow from levee failure
1991 SBC and U.S. Army COE, LA office, San Antonio Creek floodplain
1991 Irvine Company, Irvine Reservoir failure study
1991 County of Riverside, Temecula Wash Floodplain
1990 City of Garden Grove/Santa Ana River Breakout analysis near Santa Ana Freeway, levees, dam, channels
1989 Zanja Creek, SBC and U.S. Army COE, LA Office, levees, natural channels
1988 OIP basin upstream of Milliken Landfill inundation study, sudden failure of flood basin leveed walls
1988 Brea Mall/Orange County Reservoir Failure Inundation Study
1987 Development of USGS Diffusion Hydrodynamic Model (DHM)
1986 USGS inundation study for Mammoth Mountain Volcanic Eruption Study, and City of Bishop.
Hydrology Manuals (Principal Author or Contributor)
2015- 2017 Arid Hydrology, San Bernardino County
2016 Imperial County
2015- 2016 Arid Hydrology, San Bernardino County
2003 County of San Diego
2002 Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board (dairy farms)
2002 Coachella Valley
1983, 1986, 2002 County of San Bernardino
1996 County of San Joaquin
1996 Imperial Irrigation District
1994 City of Coalinga
1992 County of Kern
1991 City of Encinitas
1987 County of Orange
1986 County of San Bernardino Desert
1983 City of Ontario
Litigation and Expert Witness Experience
Served as an expert witness, for both plaintiff and defendant actions, prepared technical reviews and analyses for more than 500 Superior Court cases throughout the United States. Served as an expert witness in the California State Supreme Court case Akins vs. State of California, and the Federal Supreme Court case between the states of Nebraska and Wyoming regarding the North Platte River. Cases involved floods, surface and groundwater evaluations, contamination issues, sedimentation, mud flow, debris flow, landslide, water rights, inverse condemnation, design adequacy, failures of dams, levees, gates, and other elements, computer modeling, probability and statistics, life and property loss claims.
Principal Author of Widely Used Computer Programs
1981-2010 Advanced Engineering Software program library (AES)
1987 USGS Diffusion Hydrodynamic Model (DHM); (listed on FEMA approved local models)
1987 Co-Author of US Army Corps of Engineers LAPRE1 pre-processor for HEC-1
1987 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CRREL: two-dimensional model of heat and soil-water flow, including phase change (CRREL Special Report #87-9).
1987 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers CRREL: two-dimensional freezing front movement model, using the CVBEM (CRREL Special Report #87-8).
1981 Two- and Three-Dimensional Coupled Saturated and Unsaturated Groundwater Model (Finite Element) in Freezing/Thawing Soils, for US Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL)